Arthritis: Understanding and Managing Joint Pain

Arthritis is a complex condition with implications across different age groups and lifestyles. Whether you’re an older individual, a professional athlete, or someone who enjoys a game of tennis over the weekend, understanding arthritis is crucial.

The most common symptoms are joint pain, tenderness, swelling, stiffness, and limited movement. Arthritis is a chronic condition, and while its exact cause is unknown, risk factors include age, joint injuries, obesity, and genetics.

Arthritis Understanding and Managing Joint Pain

This guide aims to provide an in-depth understanding of arthritis, helping everyone make informed decisions about their health.

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Types of Arthritis

With over 100 different types of joint diseases, the most common forms are osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis.

Common Types of Arthritis

  • Osteoarthritis: The most prevalent form of arthritis, osteoarthritis is characterised by the degradation of joint cartilage, leading to bone rubbing against bone. This causes pain, swelling, and reduced joint movement. It often affects weight-bearing joints like knees and hips but can also impact the hands and spine.

In knee osteoarthritis, the protective cartilage in the knee deteriorates, causing bones to grind together. This results in pain, swelling, and stiffness, making activities like stair-climbing or kneeling painful.

Hip osteoarthritis the cartilage cushioning the hip joint wears away over time. This degradation leads to increased friction as the bones of the joint rub directly against each other. The outcome is often a painful experience, usually felt in the groin or thigh region, accompanied by swelling and stiffness.

  • Rheumatoid Arthritis: It is an autoimmune condition, meaning the body’s immune system erroneously targets the synovial membrane lining the joints. This leads to inflammation that can eventually result in joint deformity and bone erosion. Unlike osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis commonly impacts joints symmetrically meaning if one knee or hand is affected, the other likely is as well causing severe pain and reducing the ability to move the joints freely.

Other Notable Types of Arthritis

  • Psoriatic Arthritis: Associated with the skin condition psoriasis, it results in joint pain and can manifest with skin rashes.
  • Gout: Arising from an excess of uric acid in the body, gout produces sudden, severe joint pain, often striking the big toe first.
  • Ankylosing Spondylitis: Predominantly affecting the spine, this condition causes pain and stiffness, with severe cases leading to fused vertebrae.
  • Juvenile Arthritis: This term refers to arthritis types affecting children under 16, causing symptoms like joint pain, swelling, and stiffness.
  • Lupus: More than a joint disease, lupus is an autoimmune condition impacting various organs, yet joint pain is a common symptom.
  • Fibromyalgia: Characterised by widespread muscle pain, fatigue, and mood disturbances, fibromyalgia isn’t strictly a type of arthritis but shares many symptoms.

Over 10 million people in UK live with osteoarthritis with a median age of approximately 55 years old. Almost half (49% women and 42% of men) are people aged 75 or over.

Parts of the body affected

While arthritis is often thought of as a single condition, it can affect almost any joint in the body, but it is most commonly found in the following areas:

  • Knees: Osteoarthritis often strikes the knees, causing pain during movement, especially in older adults after prolonged activity.
  • Hips: Arthritis in the hips manifests as discomfort in the groin and thigh, usually in seniors or post-injury, affecting walking.
  • Spine: Both young and old can experience arthritis in the neck and lower back, leading to stiffness and pain when turning or bending.
  • Hands: Typically affecting older individuals or those with repetitive hand tasks, arthritis targets the thumb’s base and finger joints, making gripping painful.
  • Wrists: Osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis can hit the wrists, impacting daily tasks, especially in those with a history of wrist injuries or strain.
  • Feet: Common in active individuals or the elderly, arthritis in the big toe and midfoot presents as pain, particularly during the first steps after resting.
  • Shoulders: Arthritis in the shoulders, often due to wear and tear or injury, can restrict arm movements, especially in athletes or manual workers.

Recognising where arthritis commonly strikes is vital, as it aids in early detection and intervention, ensuring better management of the condition.

Symptoms of Arthritis

Arthritis symptoms can manifest in various ways, affecting different parts of your body. Knowing the early signs can empower you to take control of your health.

Early Indicators of Arthritis: Know When to Take Action:

  • For several days, you’ve been bothered by persistent joint pain that affects activities like walking or gripping objects.
  • In one or multiple joints, unexplained swelling appears, sometimes accompanied by redness or warmth.
  • Tasks like climbing stairs or opening jars are becoming increasingly difficult due to restricted joint movement.
  • Unusual bumps, nodules, or changes in joint shape have become noticeable deformities in your joints.
  • Alongside joint discomfort, you’re experiencing systemic symptoms like fatigue, fever, or unexplained weight loss.
  • Your symptoms persist despite trying home remedies such as over-the-counter pain relievers, ice packs, or rest.
  • If you have a family history of arthritis or autoimmune diseases, any joint-related symptoms become more significant.
  • Being over 50, you should take the onset of joint issues more seriously.
  • The pain or swelling from a recent joint injury hasn’t subsided, or the joint doesn’t seem to be healing as expected.

Being aware of these early indicators is the first step in proactive arthritis management. If you find yourself relating to the points on this checklist, an evaluation is advisable. Taking timely action can make all the difference.

Causes and Risk Factors

While the exact cause of arthritis varies depending on the type, there are general factors and conditions that can increase the risk of developing or aggravating the disease.

Biological Factors

  • Age: Older age often sees natural joint wear, increasing osteoarthritis likelihood.
  • Sex: Women are more prone to rheumatoid arthritis due to hormonal differences; men face a higher gout risk.
  • Genetics: Some genes can predispose individuals to certain arthritis types, influencing immune responses.

Lifestyle and Environmental Factors

  • Joint Injuries: Past joint injuries can accelerate arthritis onset in affected areas.
  • Weight: Carrying extra weight strains joints, especially the knees and hips, leading to faster wear.
  • Occupational Hazards: Repetitive tasks or heavy lifting can stress joints, enhancing arthritis risk.
  • Physical Activity Level: While regular activity bolsters joint health, overstrain without proper care risks injuries.

Medical and Health Factors

  • Infections: Some infections can trigger joint inflammation, resulting in arthritis.
  • Autoimmune Conditions: Conditions like lupus misdirect the immune system to attack joint tissues, causing inflammation.

Understanding these risk factors can aid in early detection and prevention. Being proactive can mitigate the risk of developing arthritis or its complications.

Diagnosing Arthritis

Accurately diagnosing the type and severity of arthritis is the cornerstone of effective treatment. The approach varies slightly depending on the suspected form of arthritis:

  • Medical History: Key for all arthritis types. The doctor will inquire about symptom onset, duration, and any familial history. For example, a sudden onset might point towards gout, whereas a family history might be more indicative of rheumatoid arthritis or lupus.
  • Physical Examination: This hands-on assessment allows the doctor to gauge joint swelling, redness, and warmth. In rheumatoid arthritis, joints on both sides of the body might be affected, whereas osteoarthritis may show more unilateral symptoms. The range of motion is also assessed, with conditions like ankylosing spondylitis significantly limiting spinal flexibility.
  • Laboratory Tests: Blood tests can detect inflammation markers, with specific tests like the rheumatoid factor targeting rheumatoid arthritis. Elevated uric acid might suggest gout.
  • Joint Fluid Analysis: Drawing fluid from an inflamed joint helps in specific diagnoses. The presence of urate crystals, for instance, confirms gout. Cloudy fluid might suggest an inflammatory arthritis like rheumatoid or psoriatic arthritis.


  • X-rays: These are invaluable for tracking osteoarthritis progression by revealing cartilage loss, bone damage, and spurs. They can also indicate joint fusion in conditions like ankylosing spondylitis.
  • Computerized tomography (CT): Combines X-rays to produce detailed images of joints and bones. Useful for spotting bone spurs, joint narrowing, and subtle changes, especially in small joints like those affected by psoriatic arthritis.
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI): Especially useful for conditions affecting soft tissues. In rheumatoid arthritis, MRI can show early signs of joint damage. It’s also pivotal in diagnosing spine-related issues in ankylosing spondylitis.
  • Ultrasound: Beneficial for rheumatoid arthritis and gout, ultrasound can show inflammation in the synovial fluid, tendon abnormalities, and even urate crystals in gout.

The process of diagnosing arthritis interweaves medical history, clinical examination, and advanced imaging to recognise the type and severity early of the condition and treatment approach.

Studies suggest that the median age of symptom onset of OA is approximately 55 years old, although severity of symptoms will vary.

Treatment and Management

Effective treatment and management of arthritis are essential to alleviate pain, improve joint function, and prevent further damage. Here’s a breakdown, tailored to the specific type of arthritis.

  • Medication
  • Physiotherapy
  • Diet and nutrition
  • Exercise
  • Regular check-ups
  • Surgical Interventions


They are typically introduced in the early stages and adjusted as the condition progresses. Their purpose is to manage pain, reduce inflammation, and in some cases, slow the progression of the disease.

Osteoarthritis Medications

  • Analgesics (Pain Relievers): Paracetamol and Co-codamol are commonly prescribed to manage pain without addressing inflammation.
  • Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs): NSAIDs, including Ibuprofen, Naproxen, and Diclofenac, reduce pain and inflammation. Topical versions NSAIDs can be applied directly to the affected joints.
  • Corticosteroid Injections: For persistent pain, injecting the medication directly into the painful joint, offers direct relief by reducing inflammation within the joint.
  • Hyaluronic Acid Injections: When other treatments fail, these injections aim to lubricate the joint, mimicking the effects of the body’s natural joint fluid.

Rheumatoid Arthritis Medications

  • Disease-Modifying Antirheumatic Drugs (DMARDs): Methotrexate, Leflunomide, and Hydroxychloroquine, slow the progression of the disease, protecting joints and tissues from incurring permanent damage.
  • Biologic Therapies: Adalimumab, Etanercept, and Infliximab, target specific components of the immune system aiming to reduce inflammation and pain.
  • Corticosteroids: Prednisolone, either as tablets or injections, provides rapid inflammation relief, often used as a short-term solution.
  • JAK Inhibitors: JAK inhibitors like Tofacitinib and Baricitinib offer an alternative for those who don’t respond to traditional treatments.


Physiotherapists work closely with their patients, through a combination of exercises, manual techniques, and therapeutic modalities to address patient’s specific needs and challenges.

  • Improve mobility: Stretching and mobilisation techniques to increase flexibility and ease movement. Patients can regain a significant portion of their lost mobility and enjoy a greater freedom of movement in their daily lives.
  • Increase muscles strength: Strength training to build muscle mass around the affected joints will provide you with better support, joint strain reduction, leading to a decrease in your pain.
  • Maintain fitness: Walking, swimming, or cycling enhance cardiovascular health, aid in weight management (reducing stress on joints), and boost endorphin levels, which are natural pain relievers.
  • Perform daily activities: Functional training techniques and use of assistive devices to help you maintain your independence and continue to engage in activities you enjoy.

Diet and Nutrition

The foods you consume play a pivotal role in managing arthritis symptoms. They can either exacerbate inflammation or help alleviate it, affecting your overall joint health.

Dietary choices through your arthritis management journey:

  • A Mediterranean diet, rich in olive oil, fish, fruits, vegetables, whole grains, nuts, seeds, and pulses, is particularly advantageous for those with autoimmune inflammatory arthritis.
  • Incorporate fruits like strawberries and blueberries, as well as spinach, for relief from inflammatory arthritis. Green tea and fish also come highly recommended, along with specific vegetarian and vegan diets.
  • Consider Omega-3 fatty acids from cold-water fish as a powerful tool for anti-inflammatory benefits.
  • Extra virgin olive oil, and its compound oleocanthal can help control chronic inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis.
  • A balanced diet and exercise regimen to maintain a healthy weight are essential for managing osteoarthritis.
  • Foods with high purine content, such as red meats and sugary drinks, should be avoided to manage gout.
  • Adequate calcium and vitamin D from sources like dairy products, leafy greens, seafood, and fortified foods are important for bone health and osteoporosis prevention.
  • A diet abundant in fruits, vegetables, and seafood not only enhances bone mineral density but also provides essential nutrients that support overall skeletal health.
  • Alcohol consumption poses a serious risk to bone health, compromises bone integrity, and interferes with bone strength, disrupting the body’s ability to absorb vital nutrients.

The choices you make at the dining table can either be your ally or your adversary in this journey. Incorporating a balanced diet into your daily routine enriches your body with the nutrients it needs to fight inflammation and maintain bone health.

The risk of developing osteoarthritis increases by 1% for each 1kg/m2 increase in BMI (Body Max Index – an estimate body fat based on weight and height) and increases by 3% for every 5cm increase in waist circumference.

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Exercise with arthritis 

Exercise isn’t just about keeping fit; it’s crucial in managing arthritis symptoms. It strengthens your body, enhances mobility, and can significantly reduce joint pain and fatigue.

Importance of Exercise for Arthritis Patients

  • Enhanced Overall Health: Exercise can improve your general well-being without putting additional stress on your joints.
  • Muscle and Bone Strength: Regular physical activity strengthens the muscles around your joints and maintains bone strength.
  • Mental and Emotional Boost: Exercise can improve your mood and mental health, providing an overall sense of well-being.
  • Risk of Inactivity: Lack of exercise can weaken the muscles that support your joints, increasing stress and pain levels.

Types of Exercises for Arthritis

ExerciseDescriptionSafety Tips
Range-of-motion exercises Reduce stiffness and enhance joint flexibility. E.g., arm circles, wrist flexion-extension, shoulder rolls.Warm up joints with these exercises. Start slowly.
Strengthening exercisesBuild muscles that support joints. E.g., dumbbell curls for biceps, leg presses for quads, resistance band pull-aparts for shoulders.Start slowly to avoid overexertion. Apply heat before and ice after exercising.
Aerobic exercisesImprove overall fitness. E.g., 30-minute brisk walk, 20-minute cycling session, 15-minute swim.Opt for low-impact exercises. Listen to your body and adjust intensity.
Other Beneficial ActivitiesDaily tasks and body movement exercises. E.g., 20 minutes of gardening, walking the dog for 30 minutes, 15-minute session of yoga or tai chi.Listen to your body and adjust intensity. Apply heat before and ice after exercising.

Get the most out of your physical activity without causing harm. Choose the right type of exercise that suits your condition and follow safety guidelines to strengthen the muscles that support your joints.

Physically inactivity (less than 30 minutes of moderate intensity physical activity a week) can increase people´s risk of developing particular MSK conditions.

Regular check-ups

It’s crucial to recognise signs you might have arthritis. When managing and treating this condition, especially during golden years it’s vital to seek advice in time. 

Signs You Might Have Arthritis:

  • Persistent Joint Issues: You’ve been experiencing pain, swelling, or stiffness in one or several joints for a while now.
  • Tenderness or Stiffness: Your joints feel tender to the touch, or you’ve noticed stiffness that wasn’t there before.
  • Daily Activities Become a Struggle: Simple tasks like opening jars or climbing stairs are becoming increasingly difficult.
  • Visual Signs: Your joints appear reddish or feel warm to the touch, indicating possible inflammation.
  • General Discomfort: Any joint symptoms that are giving you a bit of bother and affecting your quality of life.

If symptoms last more than three days, or you’ve had a few episodes in a single month, it is time to seek medical help.

Surgical Interventions

When arthritis severely affects a joint’s function and causes constant pain, surgical intervention might become the recommended course of action. Here’s a closer look:

  • Joint Replacement (Arthroplasty): This procedure replaces a damaged joint, typically the hip or knee, with an artificial one crafted from materials such as metal, ceramic, or polyethylene.
  • Joint Repair (Arthroscopy): A minimally invasive procedure that focuses on removing or repairing damaged tissue. This procedure aims to reduce pain, improve function, and typically results in less tissue damage and a quicker recovery.
  • Osteotomy: Primarily performed on knees and hips, osteotomy involves cutting and reshaping the bone to redistribute weight and relieve joint stress. The goal is to delay or prevent the need for joint replacement by preserving the natural joint as long as possible.
  • Synovectomy: This surgery is mostly used for treating rheumatoid arthritis. It involves the removal of inflamed synovial tissue surrounding a joint, aiming to reduce pain and swelling while improving joint function and potentially slowing the progression of joint damage.
  • Joint Fusion (Arthrodesis): This procedure is often applied to smaller joints like those in the wrist, ankle, or fingers. It involves permanently joining or fusing two or more bones together, thereby eliminating any movement between them.

Deciding to undergo surgery is a significant decision and requires a thorough discussion with your orthopaedic surgeon about potential risks, benefits, and the expected recovery process.

Managing arthritis is a proactive journey. Early detection, a balanced diet, regular exercise, and timely medical advice are your keys to a more comfortable life. Each step you take towards better health is a step away from pain.

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Arthritis | Causes, symptoms, treatment – Versus Arthritis I

Arthritis – Symptoms and causes – Mayo Clinic I

What Is Arthritis? – Arthritis Foundation I

What is Arthritis & What Causes it? | NIAMS – National Institutes for Health (NIH) I

Arthritis– Johns Hopkins Medicine I

Arthritis – MedlinePlus I

Arthritis: Causes, types, and treatments – MedialNewsToday I

Arthritis: Symptoms, Causes, Types & Treatment – Cleveland Clinic I

Arthritis: What it is, Symptoms, Causes, and More – Healthline I

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